/Chronological Trajectory of Indian Education System: Towards Inclusivity – Prof. Dr. Sanjoy Roy

Chronological Trajectory of Indian Education System: Towards Inclusivity – Prof. Dr. Sanjoy Roy

Prof. Dr. Sanjoy Roy
Department of Social Work, University of Delhi – INDIA

Human beings in the society interact with each other at multiple scales and platforms and they develop their social skill to perform in accordance with the social norms and values. This exchange of thoughts and gestures creates a positive learning environment for overall functioning of an individual in the society. This is known as Socialization. Socialisation is learning process in which individuals in the society interacts and learns things from each other values and actions and through this process, people acquire certain set of attitudes, values and actions being a part of culture or society. It is a continuous process which occurs in every-day activities of people.

John Dewey, An eminent philoso­pher and educationist says that “Edu­cation is a social process; education is growth; education is not prepara­tion for life but is life itself.” He was convinced with the fact education is something which is equal to life. It means that it gives human beings what they actually deserve for being a part of this society. Dr. B. R. Ambed­kar, the Father of Indian Constitution, says that “Cultivation of mind is the ultimate aim of human existence”. He was convinced with the idea of being educated in all dimensions. For him, education is the only key which can open all the social locks of the so­ciety. Education as a continuous living phenomenon was looked by Swami Vivekanada in his own ways. He says that „Our work should be mainly ed­ucational, both moral and intellec­tual.

Socialisation and Education:
Primitive stage to the advanced era
Education is a process of putting an individual into a learning situation with in a systematic framework. Ed­ucation and socialization are compli­mentary to each other as they share the common trait of learning and hu­man interaction. An individual gets socialized and educated in the same manner through different mediums and it makes them adjoining factors in the overall learning and growth in the society. This process starts from the very beginning of one’s interaction with the society and family becomes the first point of reference through which an individual starts learning things. Family as the smallest unit of the society trains a person through so­cial norms and values which are made in the initial cum primitive stages when the human civilisations used to live within their tribes and clans with­out having any other social identity attached with each other, they used to connect through each other with the organic dialects. In written form, they used to draw things in symbolic forms to educate each other. The field sites which have been excavated in the different parts of the world have the proof that people used to educate each other by carving different symbols on the trees, leaves, and stones which lat­er turned into major scripts of writing in their local and international cultur­al interactions.

The Formal education system
and Methods of Teaching
The roots of the formal education system cannot be traced exact date, but it is there in our ancient texts and scriptures which we had during the Buddhist period, Vedic age, and oth­er coordinates of history. The Vedas were the actual sources to understand the philosophy of life and system of education during the Vedic period. It consists of the four Vedas i.e. the Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda. These were the sources of knowledge about the culture, civili­zation, life and philosophy of the peo­ple of Ancient India. The aim of educa­tion during the Vedic period was to en­able an Individual to understand truth and to attain Moksha. Moksha means ‘liberation’ and ‘emancipation.’ Also known as Mukti, it is derived from San­skrit word ‘mukt’ which means to be liberated from the life-death cycle. Ve­dic education also intended to develop piety and sense of respect; to train the human cognition, intellect and mem­ory; to make one fit to have healthy progeny; to make one live long, and to bring immortality within reach (Dash, 2008, p. 20)

Methods of teaching during, the Vedic period emphasised repetitive recital or avritti. Mostly, three methods of teaching were being used by teachers during that period:

(i) Sravana (Listening): Students lis­tened to the words or texts uttered by the teacher and memorized them.

(ii) Manana (Deliberation): It was an advanced method of teaching thro­ugh which the students were taught how to reflect on the topic taught by the teacher. Intellectual appreciati­on of truth was the prominent featu­re of this method.

(iii) Nidhidhyasana (Meditation): Through this method realization of truth was to be accomplished. The individual was helped by this met­hod to realise the self.

The Buddhist Education System
Buddhism established by the te­achings of Buddha in and after 600 BC. The basic idea of ‘Sangha’ was about sitting together and having discussi­ons and conversations over things to understand them in the way they are and with other attached dimensions to them. Buddhism spread through the ‘Monasteries’ and ‘Vihars’, where edu­cational activities were carried out by the monks. Only monks or ‘Shramans’ were authorised to impart education to the people. Thus, the monasteries and ‘Vihars’ took the places of sacrifi­cial altars and as a result, these places became the centres of leaving as well as cultural life. The aims of Buddhist education were individual as well as social. Under the individual aim, the development of moral character was emphasised; under the social aim, pro­motion of culture and social efficiency were more focused. The aim of educa­tion was to disseminate worldly and practical knowledge (Nayak, 2012). The most important aim of education was to show the path by which an in­dividual can overcome the desires and ultimately achieve Nirvana.

The Modern Indian Education System
The education system in India has always been an combination of mul­tiple sources and methods. India as a diverse country welcomed everyone from the globe to roam around and shared their methods of learning to make positive amendments in their own teaching and learning systems. The modern system of education was started by the Portuguese missionari­es as early as 1510. Thereafter, the Bri­tish Christian missionaries came to In­dia and the education in modern India started with the advent of the British, the colonialism. The education during the reign of East India Company was initially neglected as the company was busy in consolidating its rule over In­dia. When one lakh rupees was sanc­tioned in the budget for the education in India in 1813 (Charter Act), Maca­ulay Minutes (1835) was written and submitted to William Bentinck, the then Governor General of India. The minute shaped the destiny of Indian education. However, the significant educational reforms under the East In­dia Company began after the Wood’s Despatch of 1854.

Education system in
pre-independent India
The major developments in Education started during the pre-independence period, notably from the recommendations of the Macaulay’s Minutes (1835). It continued till the independence of India with many other developments in education.

The Macaulay’s Minutes (1835)
The beginning of the state system of education in India under the British rule may be traced back to the year 1813 when the East India Company was compelled by the then circum­stances, both socio-economic and political, to accept responsibility for education of the Indians. However, it has its real roots in Elphinstone’s ‘min­utes’ of 1823 in which it was stressed on establishing schools for teaching English. Subsequently, Macaulay ad­vocated education of the upper classes in India and advised the government for the dissemination of western learning through the medium of English. Macaulay’s intention was to ‘create a class of people, Indian in blood and colour but English in taste, opinions, morals and intellect’ (Nayak, 2012, p. 139). The Minute submitted by Lord Macaulay was further endorsed by Lord William Bentinck which paved the way for edu­cational development in India.

The Despatch of 1854, popularly known as the Wood’s Despatch, observed the situation and gave a directive for the promotion of mass education. The recommendations of the committee were positively considered by the Board of Directors. Wood’s Despatch derives its name from Sir Charles Wood who was the President of the Board of Control for India (Aggarwal, 2011).

In order to achieve the major recommendations, the Despatch suggested the introduction of the following initiatives:

i) The Despatch declared that in all the provinces, the Department of Public instruction should be set up. Its highest official should be desig­nated as the Director of public In­struction, and he should be assist­ed by Deputy Education Director, Inspector and Deputy Inspectors of Schools.

ii) The Despatch suggested for the setting up of the Universities at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras and if necessary, at any other places too. All the Universities were to be modelled on the London University which was then an examining body.

iii) The third scheme suggested by the Despatch was the establishment of a network of high schools in the country. The Despatch empha­sised on the graded schools.

iv) The Despatch suggested the Grant-in-aid system for the institu­tions which fulfilled certain quali­fications. It also suggested that the rules and regulations for Grant-in-aid should be framed on the lines practised in England.

v) The Despatch laid importance on vocational education and to that end suggested the requirement of establishing vocational colleges and schools.

vi) It recommended for the inclusion of Indian Languages and literature during study. In order to secure properly qualified teachers, the de­sire for opening training schools in every province of India was suggest­ed by the Despatch.

The first Indian Education Commis­sion was appointed in February, 1882 by Lord Ripon with Sir William Hunter (Member of Viceroy’s Executive Coun­cil) as Chairman with other twenty persons as members, besides the President. The Commission 72 is also well-known as the ‘Hunter Commis­sion’. It was the outcome of an agita­tion began by the Council in London.

Indian University
Commission (1902)
This Commission was set up funda­mentally for two significant reasons. Initially, the university education sys­tem was extremely defective and noth­ing had been done till date to reorgan­ise the system since its beginning. Sec­ondly, the London University which acted as an ideal for the Indian uni­versities had gone through a change in the year 1898. So, it was the correct time for the Indian university educa­tion system to undergo modification. Therefore, the Indian University Com­mission was set up by Lord Curzon on January 27, 1902 and in the same year by the month of June, the Commission gave its recommendations. The Com­mission’s recommendations were ac­cepted in the interest of strengthening and revamping of the present educa­tion system. On the basis of the Indian University Commission 1902, Indian University Act 1904 was enforced.

Hartog Committee, 1928-29
In May,1928, the Simon Commission (An Indian Statutory Commission set up for examining into social, political, and economic developments of India) appointed an Auxiliary Committee, also called as the Hartog Committee, named after its chairman, Sir Philip Joseph Hartog. The Committee ar­rived at the conclusion that the expan­sion in the field of education was tak­ing place at the cost of quality and that the immediate need of the hour was to improve the “quality of education” rather than to struggle to increase the quantity education. The Committee inquired into all the aspects of educa­tion in India and presented its report in September 1929. The Hartog Com­mittee proposed various recommendations on primary education, secondary education, and Higher education.

Government of India Act, 1935
The Government of India Act, 1935 was an important step towards the advancement of education leading to the attainment of the political freedom. A new system of administration called as the Provincial Autonomy came into force from the year 1937 in eleven provinces of British India. The hopes of educational advancement were not realized as the congress remained in power for a short duration of just three years. The Act of 1919 had made education partly for all the Indian and partly for the reserved category. But the Act of 1935 removed all classifications and brought the whole educational system to be administered by the Central government and the Provincial governments.

Education System in the Post Independent India
University Education Commission, 1948-49
After independence of India in 1947, the first major initiative in education taken by the Government was appo­intment of the University Education Commission 1948-49. The Commis­sion was appointed under the Cha­irmanship of Dr. S. Radhakrishnan. This Commission is better known as Radhakrishnan Commission.

The recommendations of the commission were as follows:

i) The maintenance of the highest standards of teaching, research and examination in the universities and colleges under their control.
ii) The courses of study in the universities with special reference to the maintenance of a sound balance between the Humanities and the Sciences and between pure science and technological training and the duration of such courses.
iii) The standards of admission to university courses of study with reference to the desirability of an independent university entrance examination.
iv) The provision for advanced study in Indian culture, history, literatures, languages, philosophy and fine arts
v) The need for more universities on a regional or other basis.
vi) The qualifications, conditions of service, salaries, privileges and functions of teachers and the encouragement of original research by teachers.

Secondary Education
Commission, 1952-53
With the recommendation of an All-India Policy on Secondary Education laid down by the Central Advisory Board of Education made at its 14th meeting held in January 1948, the Government of India appointed the Secondary Education Commission in September, 1952 with Dr. A. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar, Vice Chancellor, Madras University as its Chairman. The Commission was directed to suggest measures for re-construction of secondary education with particular reference to its aims, organization, content and relationship with other levels of education.

Education Commission,
Mudiliyar and Radhakrishnan Com­mission gave certain recommendati­ons which were followed in the Edu­cation Commission 1964. The basic idea was to re-organise and re-orient all the stages of education i.e. primary, Secondary, University and Technical Education. Therefore, the Government of India appointed the Education Com­mission in 1964 under the Chairmans­hip of Dr. D.S. Kothari which is popu­larly known as Kothari Commissi­on (Nayak, 2012). The main objective of this Commission was to assess the whole educational system in India. The report comprises recommendati­ons on all aspects of education. It co­vers education at all stages from the pre-primary through the secondary to the higher. The Commission’s recom­mendations covered different areas such as reforms needed in education including a language policy; structure and quality in education; and various aspects of school education including achieving the universal retention. It highlights not only the present defects in the system at each level, but also of­fers practical recommendations for eradicating them.

National Policy
on Education, 1968
The National Education policy 1968 was aimed to encourage national progress, a sense of common citizenship and culture and to strengthen national integration. The National Policy had given its recommendations on the following aspects:

i) Free and compulsory education
ii) Status, emoluments, and education of teachers
iii) Development of languages
iv) Regional languages
v) Implementation of three language formula
vi) Achieving equal educational opportunities.

National Policy on
Education, 1986
The emphasis of

the National Policy on Education was on the vocation­alization of education. The term vocationalization was used to align education with areas like agriculture, rural development programmes, communication and other areas con­cerned as they were with the overall

development of the economy. The pol­icy also stressed the significance of Open University System of education to expand faster the level of higher education. The National Policy on Edu­cation specified that the nation should produce men and women with skills to use the recent and modern technology so that they can earn their livelihood without much suffering. The National Policy on Education 1986 considered education as a continuum. To earn the maximum benefits of the productive human resources of the country, the best mode is through spreading educa­tion. Accordingly, on the 7th May, 1990, the Government of India announced the appointment of a new committee “to review the National Policy on Ed­ucation 1986

Revised National Policy
on Education, 1992
The National Policy on Education 1986 was modified in 1992 by the Programme of Action (PoA), 1992 under the National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986. The revised recommendations were implemented on certain aspects like equity, social justice and education; early childhood care and education; adult and continuing education; education and right to work, higher education technical and management education; and resources of education.

Contribution of the
Five-year plans
The five years have played a very important part in the operationalization of governance in the country. They were the blueprints which were used by the governments to take idea of good governance from the policy formulation to ground level execution. They were introduced in 1951 are operational till now. In between, there have been many major changes which happened in their structures and functions for better functioning and outputs.

The five year plans in the area of education have tried covered all the dimensions of the education in the country. It starts from the primary level and flows towards secondary, college, university level and technical education. Many schools and universities were opened by the government in last many years. It is followed by the change in the curriculum and class patterns. The overall structure of many courses got changed as per the need of the time and introduced in new forms and patterns. The state expenditure on the education has risen over time and more contribution is given to the education by all the working governments.

The National
Education policy 2020
The National Education Policy 2020 is the first education policy of the 21st century and aims to address the many growing developmental imperatives of our country. This Policy proposes the revision and revamping of all aspects of the education structure, including its regulation and governance, to create a new system that is aligned with the aspirational goals of 21st century education, including SDG4, while building upon India’s traditions and value systems. Education Policy lays particular emphasis on the development of the creative potential of everyone. It is based on the principle that education must develop not only cognitive capacities – both the ‘foundational capacities ’of literacy and numeracy and ‘higher-order’ cognitive capacities, such as critical thinking and problem solving – but also social, ethical, and emotional capacities and dispositions. The fundamental principles that will guide both the education system at large, as well as the individual institutions within it are:

• Recognizing, identifying, and fostering the unique capabilities of each student, by sensitizing teachers as well as parents to promote each student’s holistic development in both academic and non-academic spheres;
• According the highest priority to achieving Foundational Literacy and Numeracy by all students by Grade 3;
• Flexibility, so that learners can choose their learning trajectories and programmes, and thereby choose their own paths in life according to their talents and interests;
• No hard separations between arts and sciences, between curricular and extra-curricular activities, between vocational and academic streams, etc. in order to eliminate harmful hierarchies among, and silos between different areas of learning;
• Multi-disciplinarity and a holistic education across the sciences, social sciences, arts, humanities, and sports for a multidisciplinary world in order to ensure the unity and integrity of all knowledge;
• Emphasis on conceptual understanding rather than rote learning and learning-for-exams;
• Creativity and critical thinking to encourage logical decision-making and innovation;
• Ethics and human & Constitutional values like empathy, respect for others, cleanliness, courtesy, democratic spirit, spirit of service, respect for public property, scientific temper, liberty, responsibility, pluralism, equality, and justice;
• Promoting multilingualism and the power of language in teaching and learning;
• Life skills such as communication, cooperation, teamwork, and resilience;
• Focus on regular formative assessment for learning rather than the summative assessment that encourages today’s ‘coaching culture’;
• Extensive use of technology in teaching and learning, removing language barriers, increasing access for Divyang students, and educational planning and management;
• Respect for diversity and respect for the local context in all curriculum, pedagogy, and policy, always keeping in mind that education is a concurrent subject;
• Full equity and inclusion as the cornerstone of all educational decisions to ensure that all students are able to thrive in the education system;
• Synergy in curriculum across all levels of education from early childhood care and education to school education to higher education;
• Teachers and faculty as the heart of the learning process – their recruitment, continuous professional development, positive working environments and service conditions;
• A ‘light but tight’ regulatory framework to ensure integrity, transparency, and resource efficiency of the educational system through audit and public disclosure while encouraging innovation and out-of-the-box ideas through autonomy, good governance, and empowerment;
• Outstanding research as a co requisite for outstanding education and development;
• Continuous review of progress based on sustained research and regular assessment by educational experts;

People who are left out
in the journey
Education in India has travelled a long journey from centuries. It changed its courses and actions over time in accordance with the need of the moment. It has been a continuous process which is never ending in its nature and remains with an individual throughout his or her life. The origin of government and governance gave a way to the phenomenon and made it more and more accessible for the people on ground. Various policies, schemes, acts and programs were sketched through which the education can be taken up to the people on the ground level. Especially to the people who were left out in the process. These left out people were the marginalised groups who remained out of the social order due to social exclusion practised by the other communities of the society. These communities were:

i) Women
ii) Dalits
iii) Tribals
iv) Transgenders
v) Poor’s

These communities were kept out of the social as well as educational system for many centuries. After the introduction of the constitution of India, some sections of the society got some space in state agencies via reservation policies and other schemes of the state. These schemes have positively impacted their lives and gave them the space they deserve in the state and society.

But, when we look at the flow of education system in the country, there are many aspects through which we can look and understand it. It gave a new path for the human development in the country and opened many doors for the people. It created a space through which people got into many good places which eventually changed their lives and standard of living. The state intervention in the area of education has given many opportunities to the people. But there are certain things which were got ignored by the law makers and implementers who are serving the state

Relooking at the idea of “Quality Education” and Education as ‘Human Rights’
Quality education encompasses several key elements that contribute to the holistic development of individuals. And it is only possible when education must be considered as ‘human rights’ for all. Here are some aspects that are often considered integral to quality education:

curriculum that is comprehensive, up-to-date, and aligned with educational standards is crucial. It should cover a wide range of subjects and provide opportunities for both academic and personal growth.
2. Qualified Teachers: Competent and motivated teachers play a central role in delivering quality education. They should not only possess expertise in their subject matter but also be skilled in instructional methods, classroom management, and fostering a supportive learning environment.
3. Equitable Access: Quality education should be accessible to all, regardless of socioeconomic background, gender, ethnicity, or physical ability. Efforts to address disparities in access to education are essential for achieving educational equity.
4. Engaging Teaching: Effective teaching methods that promote active learning, critical thinking, problem-solving, and creativity are vital. Interactive and experiential learning experiences can enhance student engagement and understanding.
5. Supportive Learning Environment: Schools should cultivate a safe, inclusive, and supportive environment where students feel valued, respected, and empowered to learn. Positive relationships among students, teachers, and parents contribute to a conducive learning atmosphere.
6. Continuous Assessment and Feedback: Regular assessment and feedback mechanisms help monitor student progress, identify areas for improvement, and adjust teaching strategies accordingly. Formative assessments, in particular, enable teachers to provide timely support to students.
7. Integration of Technology: Meaningful integration of technology can enhance teaching and learning experiences, facilitate access to information, and develop digital literacy skills essential for success in the 21st century.
8. Life Skills and Development: Beyond academic knowledge, education should also focus on developing essential life skills such as communication, collaboration, resilience, empathy, and ethical decision-making.
9. Cultural Relevance: Recognizing and incorporating diverse cultural perspectives into the curriculum promotes inclusivity and helps students develop a global mindset, cultural awareness, and appreciation for diversity.
10. Community Engagement: Collaboration with parents, communities, and relevant stakeholders fosters a sense of shared responsibility for education and strengthens the support system for learners.

By addressing the above elements comprehensively, educational institutions can strive to provide quality education that equips students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to thrive in an ever-changing world. And education is being as ‘human rights’ will automatically create more scope for the marginalised people to get education.

When we look at the country with a marginalised friendly, academic, and sceptical lens, then we can try to connect the locations of the people who were thrown out of the system even after having so many initiatives from the side of the state. When we look at the socio-economic structure of the Indian society in the contemporary times, we will be able to understand that in the name of good governance, multiple development plans and quality education, some people got excluded again. But the interesting scenario is that these people cover the majority population of the country. The education system which we proposed earlier by different governments have not reached them with the expected pace. At the same time, there are other social factors which have played a very important role in their execution as the people who were in power were from the dominant sections of the society and never wanted the marginalised people to come forward in the main stream societ

When we look back and understand the idea of “Quality education”, we have to understand with a more compassionate lens. Within the framework of “Quality Education”, we need to cover each and every point and understand how it differs from the promise which were made or is made by the new government of their election agenda. The curriculum which is proposed in all the segments plays a very important role in all the forms of education. But, getting access to the curriculum and working with the pace of it are two different aspects.

In India, everything is distributed to the people on the basis of their identities and classes. Getting access to equitable education becomes a bigger task for the people on the margins. It eventually became the major reason why they were and are not represented in the major educational institutions. They have no equal resources distributed among them due to which their access to education becomes difficult. Pedagogy and learning environment plays equally a very important role in the process of education. In the remotest locations of the country where people have their organic ways of living, introducing the pedagogies which are very alien to them and also, the learning environment provided to them is very discriminatory in nature. The dropout rates among the backward sections especially among the SC (Scheduled Castes) and ST (Scheduled Tribes) have increased drastically from 2016 to 2020 due to very nature of caste oppression and discrimination faced by the marginalised students in the educational institutions at various levels. Therefore, education must be considered as ‘human rights’, only then marginalised will get real justice.

Education has shifted towards the digitalization which showed during the COVID times from 2020 when the whole education system shifted to the ONLINE mode of education. Here, the people who were having access to all kinds of gadgets and technology took all the benefits of online education system. But people who reside in the areas where there are no internet connections faced a lot of troubles in getting the education. In addition, getting admission and examination process online created a lot of hurdles for the students in rural areas as they have no proper access to the medium of communications and source of support.

But, what is the Way Forward?
The whole idea of providing and getting education flows is to create an individual responsible citizen to making productive asset for the country, so that he or she can serve the nation with the form of education and skill set he or she have acquired over time. In last seven decades, the education system in India took many turns in order to make it more accessible, affordable and usable. Multiple plans, programs and policies were introduced by the state to include more and more people into the mainstream education system, but there are many gaps we have found in the system due to which many of them especially marginalized or underprivileged are still residing on the margins. The major benefits of the education system have reached the people who were already privileged and were having resources in their hands. It maintained the difference between the haves and haven’t in the society. The state based initiative impacted only a selective portion of the society who was the people already equipped with everything or major shares of the benefits.

The pragmatic school of thought who deals with the concept of problem solving can give us a way for solving some of the problems in linkage with the education system in India, which are as follows:

1. Teacher Student Ratio: The Teacher student ratio in the country is facing a lot of imbalances due to the lack of appointments. A lot of qualified people having all the required qualifications for the jobs are not getting employments. In the parallel world, the educational institutions are facing trouble due to lack of qualified teachers in the schools and colleges. The state should take positive actions for raising the status of school education and should work on the recruitment of new people to maintain the student teacher ratio in the educational institutions.
2. Expenditure on Education: The state expenditure on education is very low. It is around 4.5 percent. The low investment in the education sector is one of the major factors responsible for the low output from the sector. The state should invest in the central policies on the education to make it accessible more and more for the students who are residing in the remotest areas of the country.
3. Youth centric policies: The state should look forward to form youth centric policies as India is Youth populated country. It means that the majority population of the country is youth. It is that states duty to invest more in the youth development programs through their interventions.
4. Skill Development: The leading countries of the world have one thing in common is that they all have invested in heavy industries, technology, and skill development. Skill development is one of the most important aspects which are related with the overall development of the country in linkage with the education system. India is service sector economy in majority so the Indian state should invest in the skill development programs in addition to establish heavy industries in the country.
5. Professional Courses: The state need to work upon increasing the space for the professional courses in the countries education system in addition to the academic courses. The professional courses are employment oriented in nature. So it becomes easy for an individual to get a job in the market.
6. Approaching grass roots: Majority of the Indian population resides in the villages of the country. Illiteracy and unemployment leads to migration of people from the rural areas to the urban belts of the country which is creating misbalance in the population as the working population is concentrating in some urban areas and the remaining part of the country is having vacuum of the labours in the local areas. The state in this regard should invest in the local educational institutions. In other words, the state should approach the rural areas and invest in the educational institutions in order to make education accessible for all the sections of the society.
7. Inclusion of the left outs: In the last seven decades of independent governance, there have been many policies and programs created by different governments but there is huge population of the country is struggling to get good quality education due to various socio-political reasons which worked time to time. The state should take positive actions in ensuring the inclusion of such sections of the society in the main stream education tend to the social system.

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